Proliferative Therapy




1) Freeman JW, Empson YM, Ekwueme EC, Paynter DM, Brolinson PG. Effect of Prolotherapy on Cellular Proliferation and  Collagen Depositon in MC3T3-E1 and Patellar Tendon Fibroblast Populations. Transl Res. 2011 Sep;158(3):132-9.doi: 10.1016/j.trsl.2011.02.008. Epub 2011 Mar 21.


2) Chang KV, Hung CY, Aliwarga F, Wang TG, Han DS, Chen WS.Comparative Effectiveness of Platelet-Rich Plasma Injections for Treating Knee Joint Cartilage Degenerative Pathology: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.Archives of Phys. Med. Rehabil, 2014 March;95(3);562-575.doi; 10.1016/j.apmr.2013.11.006. Epub 2013 Nov 27


3) Brian Halpern, Salma Chaudhury, Scott A. Rodeo, Catherine Hayter, Eric Bogner, Hollis G. Potter, Joseph Nguyen. Clinical and MRI Outcomes After Platelet-Rich Plasma Treatment for Knee Osteoarthritis. Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine, 2012; 1 DOI: 10.1097/JSM.0b013e31827c3846


4) Ryan M, Wong A, Taunton J. Favorable outcomes after sonographically guided intratendinous injection of hyperosmolar dextrose for chronic insertional and midportion achilles tendinosis. Am J Roentgenol. 2010 Apr;194(4):1047-53.


5) Khan SA; Kumar A; Varshney MK; Trikha V; Yadav CS: Dextrose prolotherapy for recalcitrant coccygodynia J Orthop Surg , Apr 2008, 16(1) p27-9.


6) Reeves KD Hassanein K Long term effects of dextrose prolotherapy for anterior cruciate ligament laxity: A prospective and consecutive patient study. Alt Ther Hlth Med May-Jun 2003, 9(3): p58-62.


7)(Yelland MJ, Glasziou PP, Bogduk N, et al. Prolotherapy Injections, Saline Injections, and Exercises for Chronic Low-Back Pain: A Randomized Trial. Spine 2004; 29(1): 9-16.)


8) Gosens T, Peerbooms JC, van Laar W, den Oudsten BL.  Ongoing Positive Effect of Platelet-Rich Plasma Versus Corticosteroid Injection in Lateral Epicondylitis: A Double-Blind Randomized Controlled Trial With 2-year Follow-up [In Process Citation] Am J Sports Med  (United States), Jun 2011, 39(6) p1200-8.


9) Cusi M; Saunders J; Hungerford B; Wisbey-Roth T; Lucas P; Wilson S. The use of prolotherapy in the sacroiliac joint. Br J Sports Med 2010;44: 100-104.


10) Rabago D, Patterson J.Hypertonic Dextrose Injections (prolotherapy)for knee osteoarthritis: A Randomized Controlled Trial.  Annals of Family Medicine May/June 2013 doi: 10.1370 vol.11 no.3 229-237


11) Topol GA, Reeves KD: Regenerative injection of elite athletes with career-altering chronic groin pain who fail conservative treatment: a consecutive case series. Am J Phys Med Rehabil 2008;87; – .


12) Refai H, Altahhan O, Elsharkawy R: The Efficacy of Dextrose Prolotherapy for Temporomandibular Joint Hypermobility: a preliminary prospective, randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2011 Dec:69(12):2962-70.doi.10.1016/j.joms.2011.02.128. Epub 2011 Jul 16.


13) Hackett GS, Hemwall GA, Montgomery GA : Ligament and Tendon Relaxation treated by Prolotherapy  Charles C Thomas Publisher

14) Klein Robert G, Patterson Jeffrey. "Prolotherapy for the Treatment of Back Pain." Position Statement of the American Association of Orthopedic Medicine 




G Tucker MD Prolotherapy 2014

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